best programming languages for blockchain app development

Blockchain offers an alternative safe, secure, and excellent approach to standardize how people transfer and receive money. The advancement of this technology has resulted in benefits in various industries. In this article, you will learn the basics and the best programming languages for Blockchain app development.

You are not alone if you have heard of Bitcoin and decentralized finance lately. Blockchain is the underlying technology that powers them. It has evolved into a multibillion-dollar industry, with more and more businesses seeking new ways to incorporate it. 

What Is Blockchain & How Does It Function?

Blockchain can be defined as a digital ledger of transactions. The ledger is spread across the complete network, consisting of computers that are linked to the blockchain. Each block holds several transactions. Whenever a fresh transaction is added, the blocks of every participant in the chain receive a record of that transaction information.

Adding new blocks in the blockchain network necessitates inter-node communication and subsequent validation. For a new block to be registered, all the P2P network participants must accept it through consensus. There are a few consensus mechanisms such as Proof-of-Work(Bitcoin), Proof-of-Stake(ADA), Proof-of-Authority, etc. 

These blocks get incorporated into the blockchain chronologically and comprises digital blocks of transactions. The best part is that it’s impossible to alter the recorded data without impacting all the following blocks. Therefore, even the slightest changes made to the blockchain can be observed by all participants. This makes it incredibly difficult, almost impossible, to compromise the system. 

And, even if it gets compromised, it can be restored, thanks to its decentralized nature!

Types Of Blockchains

Before diving into what is blockchain coding, you should be aware of its types! Broadly, blockchain has four distinct network types. They are:

  • Permissionless Blockchain (public)

This type of blockchain is available(accessible) to all network participants on any device. A user can join the blockchain, complete transactions, validate them, and remain anonymous at the same time. For instance, Bitcoin is the most well-known permissionless blockchain. 

It is ideal for developing apps that will be accessible to many people.

  • Permissioned Blockchain (Private)

A permissioned or private blockchain is only accessible to its authorized participants. Generally, it comes with specific rules that regulate the transactions of nodes(network participants). Organizations that deploy permissioned blockchain mostly do so for internal purposes. 

The transaction validators in such a set-up belong to the same organization.

types of blockchains and use cases

  • Hybrid Blockchain

Hybrid blockchain is a mix of the two types of blockchains mentioned above(permissionless & permissioned). Organizations benefit by incorporating the elements from the two worlds in a few scenarios.

Hybrid blockchain facilitates the establishment of a private system in compilation with a public one. It allows an organization to regulate who has access to certain stored data in the blockchain. The scope of data available to all network participants is also determined by it.

  • Consortium Blockchain

A consortium blockchain is also popularly known as a “federated” blockchain. It is pretty similar to a private blockchain with a particular group having access to it.

A validator node on the consortium blockchain is capable of initiating, receiving, and validating transactions. On the other hand, the member nodes can only initiate/receive transactions. When it comes to validation, the doors remain shut for them.

Top 13 Programming Languages For Blockchain App Development in 2022

Here is a list of the best programming languages for blockchain app development that you can learn in 2022!

#1 Python

Python is no longer restricted to application, network servers, and IoT development. With the advent of blockchain, it is proving its worth in the space of Blockchain-as-a-service.

Thanks to its exceptional features, the popular language is widely utilized for decentralized applications & smart contracts. Here is a glimpse of those features that makes it suitable as a blockchain programming language:

  • Ease of access to a dynamic architecture.
  • An ideal choice for both scripting & base techniques.
  • Impeccable open-source support.
  • Python offers easy-to-learn blockchain coding, and it is also great when it comes to prototyping.

Hyperledger Fabric & Steem are two of the popular Python-based blockchain projects as of now.

#2 JavaScript

When coupled with the frameworks such as Node.js, a well-established language, JavaScript, presents a myriad of advantages to the developers.

  • A blockchain programmed in JavaScript paves the way for an easier & faster entry into the nascent market.
  • JavaScript can enhance the scalability of a blockchain.
  • Various blockchain JavaScript frameworks are available.
  • There is no need to deal with the inconvenience of integrating respective resources

best blockchain programming languages

#3 Solidity

Inspired by C++, JavaScript, and Powershell, Solidity is one of the fastest-growing blockchain programming languages. It is widely utilized to code smart contracts executed on the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM). 

It is a new-age programming language (developed by Vitalik Buterin) that focuses on simplicity and has a massive fan base among Ethereum developers. A Turing-complete and contract-oriented programming language, the headcount of Solidity developers is 200,000+ and growing.

The blockchain programming language offers many benefits to blockchain development companies, such as:

  • JavaScript infrastructures, debuggers, + additional tools accessibility. 
  •  Statically-typed programming.
  • Potential to inherit properties within smart contracts.
  • Developer-friendliness & impeccable accuracy

#4 C++ (Powering Bitcoin!) 

C++ is already one of the most established languages (developed in 1985), and it is valuable even for the new-generation blockchain technology! Thanks to its 360-degree capabilities, such as advanced multi-threading, move semantics, elementary control over memory, and object-oriented features such as run-time polymorphism, function overloading, and much more, it is pretty popular in blockchain coding.

Developers can easily blend functions & data in one module, similar to how a blockchain wraps the blocks with the cryptographic chains. In fact, Bitcoin is coded in C++, which is the most popular cryptocurrency at the time of writing.

#5 Vyper

Vyper is a relatively new blockchain programming language, and it is inspired by Python 3. Thus, even if Vyper does not contain all the features of Python, the syntax for Vyper is also applicable in Python 3. 

Vyper intends to be an alternative to Solidity. Similar to Solidity, Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) is where it is mostly used. Vyper has distinct control structures and tackles security issues quite differently.

#6 Go

Go is a statically-typed programming language (created by Google). It has been developed by incorporating the convenience of code development with the power of compiled language.

It is a terrific choice to develop fast and efficient blockchain systems.

An ideal language to design a hyper-ledger network, Go serves as a good foundation to produce Blockchain apps. Other top-notch features include classes & inheritance, generics, annotations, constructors, exceptions, etc. The Go language network has a massive 800,000+ developers.

#7 Ruby

Ruby is the best language for blockchain development to headstart your career. Created in the mid-1990s, this general-purpose and high-level programming language facilitates developers to quickly prototype their vision. It does so with third-party APIs & plugins(open-source). 

Ruby also allows developers to blend its features with different languages to produce an enhanced experience. It is popular among Asian developers to develop blockchain-based apps & platforms.

#8 Rholang

Rholang is considered an excellent choice for smart contract development. The language comes with a functional approach instead of the traditional object-oriented approach. Thus, it is pretty helpful in cracking many blockchain problems, which fuels its popularity.

Rholang applications assess the whole problem like a series of functions and solve them sequentially. This approach is in stark contrast with languages such as python, Java, C, etc. The latter set of languages uses variables to store data & change the variable value with time. 

In short, Rholang comes with a unique functional programming approach that makes it a language to check out for the new-age developers!

best 13 blockchain programming languages

#9 Java

Java is another traditional programming language that makes it to this list even in 2022! It is highly suitable for blockchain development.

The language follows C-syntax. It is popular for being used in the development of suave dApps(decentralized apps) and smart contracts.

These properties are what makes it popular:

  • Strong OOP Support (Object-Oriented Programming) methodology.
  • Ease of memory cleaning.
  • Vast libraries are available for developers.

The best examples of blockchain solutions that demonstrate the prowess of Java are IOTA, NEM, Hyperledger Fabric, etc.

Also Read: How Much Does It Cost To Build Blockchain Projects?

#10 C#

This OOP language offers a bunch of features for enterprise-powered apps and cross-platform development. Also, it is armed with features of C, .NET, and SQL frameworks & appeals to blockchain developers.

  • It is open-source.
  • Its syntax is easy to understand & learn.
  • It allows blockchain app developers to author portable code across devices.

From dApps to smart contracts and infrastructure in a Blockchain environment, C# can be used to develop all.

#11 PHP

PHP (Hypertext Preprocessor) is another language utilized to develop blockchain solutions of varying complexity. The popularity of PHP can be attributed to its object-oriented feature & huge community support.

Here is an example of a simple open-source PHP Blockchain available on Github.

https://github.com/knowledgearcdotorg/phpblockchain

It shows a simple implementation of the blockchain data structure(proof-of-work). 

#12 Rust

Though a new entrant in the Blockchain ecosystem, Rust has already made its name in developing visionary, secure, and immutable solutions. 

It allows open-source developers to develop fast & potent blockchain frameworks.

It can also manage mutable states, optimize code, have better memory options & concurrency-based prospects.

#13 CX

CX is the last to feature in our list of best programming languages for Blockchain app development in 2022.

The innovative language has a great potential to function as a contractual digital intermediary. What’s more, it comes loaded with features like an option to utilize propelled cuts, arrays, and pointers in addition to a simplistic error-control process. 

It can also assemble over Go to provide relief to users from executing discretionary codes, which is a critical roadblock. The language can also integrate with OpenGL (Open Graphics Library) efficiently. It aids the developers in reaping promising benefits from an augmented GPU capacity.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQs)

blockchain faqs

1. How Do I Create A Blockchain App?

Here are a few steps to create a blockchain app:

  1. Have a clear vision of what you are looking to develop.
  2. Understand the market and perform a competitor research!
  3. Choose a blockchain platform
  4. Opt for a blockchain app development company
  5. Start the development process
  6. Deploy your blockchain application. 

2. How Much Does It Cost To Develop A Blockchain App?

Blockchain apps can have a varying range of complexity. So, the cost to develop a blockchain app depends on it and mostly ranges from $10000-$60000.

How long does it take to build a Blockchain app?

The duration to develop a blockchain app can depend on multiple factors such as:

  1. Industry in which you are going to implement the application.
  2. Problems that your blockchain aims to solve & relevant research 
  3. The proficiency of the development team
  4. White paper, and
  5. ICO

Taking into account the complexity of the solution, a blockchain application can be developed in 3-4 months ideally. However, it might take some more time where the requirements are complex.

3. How Does Blockchain Differ From Cryptocurrencies?

Blockchain is the fundamental technology that allows cryptocurrencies to function. A blockchain is an immutable & highly secure database. 

On the other hand, all cryptocurrency transactions(native to the blockchain) are recorded and maintained by the blockchain.

4. What Is A Smart Contract? What Are Some Of Its Applications?

In the blockchain world, smart contracts are self-executing contracts that include the terms & conditions of agreements that kick off automatically when met.

A few applications are:

i. Safeguarding Copyrighted Content: Smart contracts can safeguard ownership rights of music and books.

ii. Transportations: Shipments are easily tracked utilizing smart contracts.

iii. Insurance: Smart contracts can detect false claims & prevent fraud.

iv. Employment Contract: Smart contracts can facilitate wage payments without glitches.

Wrapping Up

Heading into 2022 and beyond, these are the best programming languages for blockchain app development. Each of the aforementioned languages is distinct in its potential and thus gets utilized for developing a range of blockchain & cryptocurrency-based solutions. If you are scouting for the best developers well-versed in blockchain programming languages, feel free to contact our experts!

Stay tuned to our blog space to learn more about blockchain.

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